Categorie archief: Commando Landstrijdkrachten

Alle landstrijdkrachten ondergebracht onder één commando. Inclusief benodigde Combat Service Support eenheden.

out-of-the-box solution: LAHAT missile & NEMO mortar!

the continued reliance on close air support – a capability that kept ground troops safe in Afghanistan and Iraq – was a “flawed assumption” for future campaigns.

In my last post I wrote about the necessity to repair the teeth of the Dutch Lion. I argued that the Ministry of Defense often “brags” about number of “Main Weapon Systems” (in the sense of the platforms” but in fact these systems/platforms lack weapon systems, and are often only armed with self defense turrets/guns. The Dutch armed forces – especially the land forces lack offensive capability and depend completely on others and “Airpower” which is an illusion.

Last week these claims I make for years now (to death mans ears some officers are laughing it away, and politicians… well they are just that…) But now a British active duty Brigadier acknowledges these claims….

“Brigadier Simon Humphrey said budget cuts and an over-emphasis on low-end insurgency operations have left Nato forces at risk of being “overwhelmed in the early stages of a high-intensity conflict”.
….
He added that the continued reliance on close air support – a capability that kept ground troops safe in Afghanistan and Iraq – was a “flawed assumption” for future campaigns.

….

An accompanying video presentation declared that “Nato’s rocket and gun platforms are outnumbered, outranged and outgunned by all their likely peer adversaries. The enemy would overwhelm our forces with greater range, volume and access to large-calibre munitions.

“A rocket engagement with a mix of sensor fuzed, thermobaric and proximity munitions against dispersed Nato battle groups would be devastating.” ”

Normally our officers won’t listen, they are proud of their work. They have (when there is money left) some exercises where they “show- off” that the units and Main Weapon Systems” (namely the Boxer, Fennek in it’s strange configurations) Perform well. Their scenarios are met…. Don’t ask how they do it… but they say they do. Well I’ve read some reports about it.. they create a scenario where there (limited) “capabilities” for offensive operations fit in… the scenario… “beautiful weather” scenarios they are. If all goes well, all goes like they planned it… the mission will be accomplished… Sort of Battle of Arnhem scenario… but what if there is a SS Pantzer division in the neighborhood? But now a British respected high ranking (and responsible) Officer claims the same…. So will they believe and act now? (I hope for the best, but expect the worst……)

With this post I want to deepen the concept I foresee with an out-of-the-box approach. This approach is needed in my opinion as a measure to give especially the light infantry forces a defensive and offensive system to decrease dependence on Combat Air Support and third nation capabilities. A combination of the NEMO and LAHAT missile.

Feasibility

In my latest post I mentioned two specific systems: NEMO and LAHAT and the combination of them which is possible…. I asked IAI (a couple of years ago) for this possibility and they replied that since the missile is designed as a Multi-role system it will be possible.

Excerpt from my email questionnaire to IAI:

LAHATlauncerquad

Q: “Could the Nemo (from the Finnish company Patria) fire the LAHAT? Because that would be very interesting to give the Nemo a multi-purpose function. 

A:  “The LAHAT in the canister version may be launched from any platform including the NEMO. The LAHAT in the canister only weights 16 kg, the length is 1 meter and the diameter 12cm. The electrical interface of the LAHAT Interface Unit (LIU) and the platform is very simple. The LAHAT firing envelope is very wide and tolerant and doesn’t request very accurate positioning of the vehicle or complicate operations by the operator”.

Patria, the creator of the NEMO mortar probably wasn’t aware of this but I received this reaction from them:

“I’ll pass the information you sent to our engineers and let’s see what comes out of that. And many thanks!”

Unfortenately I never received any response from the engineers… But the reaction of IAI is clear: Since this is cleared out: the other decision-making factors not included factors like:

  • Political willingness,
  • industry interests
  • The will to do things differently out-of-the-box (imo a real problem in the military). I once had a discussion about the Fennek… to better arm some of the vehicles (with a 25-35 RCWS) to have more Direct-Fire Support firepower for light infantry, recce units etc. the discussion and arguments moved from it isn’t technical possible (definetly wrong-it is why should they otherwise develop the Fennek Stinger WP with a weight of 1500kg?) to >>> There wasn’t a “political” request to do this.. so according to this officer the politicians are leading in what is needed to equip our forces… While imo the military should show to politicians – this is wat’s needed – if not these are the consequences > for your responsibility (towards the soldiers lives and people. But it seems to me the military is lacking the capability to think outside of the box…

It is possible and a real viable solution for countries who currently lack the firepower generated by medium combat vehicles, tanks, a lack of non-availability of Long Range Guided Weapons (LRGW). This combination offers a multi-role solution for several shortfalls. This system can be used in the

Direct Fire-Support function and Indirect Fire-Support function combined from one platform!

The 120mm Patria NEMO mortar.  This system is unique in its capabilities. Of course there are other mortars with a little bit the same capabilities but they are lighter, slower or less capable. Here are some of the features about the turret which is light and compact and easily installable on light, tracked chassis (even like the BVS10 Viking) or wheeled armored vehicles in the 6×6/8×8 class or even boats:

  • A lightweight structure, requiring little space within the platform and, therefore, adjustable for older chassis
  • High rate of fire
  • Rapid response
  • Shoot and scoot
  • Minimal crew (driver + 1 Nemo weapon officer + 2 loaders)
  • Direct fire capability
  • Direct lay capability
  • Suitable for all standard 120 mm smoothbore mortar ammunition
  • Full 360° traverse
  • Joint operations between Patria Nemo and Patria Nemo Navy units
  • A Range of +10km
  • Multiple Round Simultaneous Impact (MRSI, so shoot several rounds, and let them come on the ground at about the same time)

Picture 811

What to choose for the Dutch Armed forces?
Well, the best option would be the AMV from patria itself. But unfortunately, the Dutch military burdened our country (and thus their own operational soldiers) with the Boxer 8×8 vehicle which is even in it’s unarmed configuration overweight, to slow and to expensive. Since these units are intended to support the “light” infantry units (if I had anything to say) My pick would be the BVS10 Viking version. But besides that there is another option… a containerized version…….(isn’t that awesome?) This option could fit on Trucks, Amphibious landing boats (for example LCVP or even faster boats like the Watercat M16, and ofcourse as a base security guard C-RAM system.  I believe the BVS10 Viking would have my preference above the armored truck since it will be better suited for the working environment.

BVS10VikinNemo

Nemo_BvS10

Some of the options this containerized version will give a defense force…… I can tell you It opens a lot of potential… for C-RAM, Base defense, Amphibious and Littoral warfare, Special Forces support…

Patria-Nemo-Container-6 

Nemo_container

 

  • Multi functional LAHAT Missile – JOINT weapon system of choice!
  • My personal favorite however is the Semi Active Laser (SAL) guided LAHAT missile. Because of it’s “low-cost” and multi function / joint capabilities. It has a very low weight (about 13kg) and excellent range about 8km). What is needed is a sytem of “connected” sensors & shooters. Sensors can be handheld, drone, helicopter, (any aircraft with a IR targeting system / Laser Designation System), Mast mounted, vehicle mounted. So the shooter platform doesn’t really have to be the guiding one, guidance can be given by any available sensor platform. The same missile can be used to equip many different platforms:
  • Tanks and NEMO mortars:Unique in its kind, it’s the only missile both capable of firing from a launcher and from a 105 / 120mm gun.  The LAHAT missile is already integrated on Leopard 2A4 tanks as shown in the video here. The LAHAT missile is put in a canister which can be handled as normal ammunition onboard a tank/mortar carrying vehicle. In theory even 105mm artillery guns can be equipped with this as a direct fire solution if needed. Range about 8km.

Lahat_Firing_Leopard_2A4

This out-of-the box solution needs to be arranged also in a organizational way.. These kinds of systems aren’t just “artillery” “Indirect Fire-Support” capabilities but in reality, direct fire-support solutions. This requires that the way of operating, organizing and supporting these units needs, from the bottom up, a maneuver oriented organization.

I believe it should be directly under the battalion commanders control. (through the Combat Fire Support Company (or how the RNLMC thinks it should be called… 😊) It should fit within the DutchForce21 infantry battalion structure. And I promise, I will create a TOE for this…

DutchForce21 plans for:

  • 4 Light Infantry bataljons (marines and air maneuver)
  • 1 Paracomando bataljon (taking NEMO with them is not an option, lightweight vehicles with 81mm mortar and LAHAT launchers will (something like this? RAM KM3)

LAHAt Launcher 2quad

  • 4 Mechanised Infantry bataljons… Yes they can have the NEMO mortar as well….

The Fire Support Companies for both Mechanized and Light Infantry will be different. I come later to that.

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Part 3: How to repair the teeth of the Dutch Lion

I wrote a series of three blogs, one about the statistical situational of the personnel of the land forces so Land forces command and the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps. The second blog is an explanation of the Dutch current lack of offensive and eventualy defensive capabilities. In it’s current form it is only able to operate in peace support or police / military training missions and with doing that depending on Airpower and support from other countries. The third piece has some suggestions of what to do to repair these deficiencies and to (re)create teeth…. of the Dutch Lion.

 

And this is the fun part I now give a free advise to the Dutch Land forces… and politicions working on their new goverment… where they promised during the elections to make a real effort of investing in Defense… because they see that the world isn’t that safe… if it ever was..

What the Netherlands Defense forces (on land) need is a combination of capabilities which overlap each other. If we take the worst case scenario – High intensity conflict – you need a combination of systems which are capable of supporting each other on the battlefield. Probably in a dispersed way So no high value targets of massed groupings of units as a sitting duck.

So IMO we do need a system with connected capacities to create an “imaginative” umbrella. An umbrella which is both defensive and offensive. We need:

Direct fire support systems:

  • Heavy caliber = 120 – 140mm main armament (that’s what it really means😊) to be found on (heavy, medium and light) Tanks, and Tank-killers (also wheeled variants available).
  • Lahat_Firing_Leopard_2A4

    The LAHAT missile launched from a German Leopard 2A4 tank..

  • Medium caliber = 20 – 40mm main armament to be found on Infantry Fighting vehicles, Direct Fire support vehicles (also wheeled 4×4, 6×6, 8×8 and 10×10 vehicles available, so also to support Light infantry or Wheeled infantry units.)
  • Small caliber = 0,5 Machine guns, remotely controlled or manual fitted as main weapon on Combat Service Support (CSS) vehicles as it is now, or as secondary armament on Combat Support (CS) vehicles.
  • Multi purpose grenade launchers = 25 – 40mm remotely controlled or manual, fitted as main weapon on Combat Service Support (CSS) vehicles as it is now, or as secondary armament on Combat Support (CS) vehicles.
  • Hand-held grenade launchers (for example 40mm) Infantry weapon
  • Sniper rifles and in some cases Anti Material Rifles (20mm)
  • Assault rifles Infantry 7,62mm standard (a higher standard than the current 5,56mm standard, because of increased range and effectiveness.

Guided Weapons against land targets:

  • Short Range: with a range up to 1km, to be employed by light infantry (YES, we already have these 😊) Pantserfaust and Carl Gustav.
  • Medium Range: with a range up to 2,5km, to employed by light infantry and dismounted (wheeled/mechanized) infantry (We have these as well 😊) Fire & Forget capability Spike MR.
  • Long Range: A capability to be able to fire against targets within a range of 8km this would be a new capability for the Dutch armed forces. They did have the TOW missile from the PRAT YPR vehicle but it had an effective range of 4km. This capability will give maneuver unit the etch against enemy forces because you will be able to hit others while they aren’t normally capable of hitting you back. This would be a decisive capability especially for the Wheeled and light infantry because they normally lack the power of tanks. There are several interesting systems, I would suggest to take two types the Extended range (>8km) and the Non-Line of sight (NLOS) with a range of about 25km. The first one is really essential, the second one would give our forces more punch and lowers the risk. Because we (our soldiers) can strike at a greater range than the enemy would be able to do:
    • Extended range: There are several capable options so there shouldn’t be a predefined option.

Multi functional LAHAT Missile – JOINT weapon system of choice!

LAHATlauncerquad

 

My personal favorite however is the Semi Active Laser (SAL) guided LAHAT missile. Because of it’s “low-cost” and multi function / joint capabilities. It has a very low weight (about 13kg) and excellent range about 8km). What is needed is a sytem of “connected” sensors & shooters. Sensors can be handheld, drone, helicopter, (any aircraft with a IR targeting system / Laser Designation System), Mast mounted, vehicle mounted. So the shooter platform doesn’t really have to be the guiding one, guidance can be given by any available sensor platform. The same missile can be used to equip many different platforms:

  • Helicopter: Even the lightest helicopters can be equipped with long range strike assets, a quadruple launcher weights only 75kg. So this weapon can be used on the LSH and Apache helicopters. In the latter’s case it means that our Apache can fly much further (because of lower weapon loads) while being equipped with a bigger ranged weapon then the current Hellfire missiles (which by the way outprice the LAHAT. Hellfire missiles cost about $ 68.000 a piece versus the LAHAT for about $ 20.000. Because LAHAT would be used by both Land-, Air-, and even Sea command’s it will probably mean we can buy more missiles at lower prices and with less cost for support,  training, storage and other facilities. The range fired from helicopters is about 13km.
  • Drone’s: there are plans underway to integrate LAHAT on Drones. Because of the weight this can be done on both fixed wing and vertical lift drones. And we even don’t have to use the Heavy and over expensive American options, the Dutch military (Air Force is favoring… as usual) The range is also about 13km.
  • Tanks and NEMO mortars: Unique in its kind, it’s the only missile both capable of firing from a launcher and from a 105 / 120mm gun.  The LAHAT missile is already integrated on Leopard 2A4 tanks as shown in the video here. The LAHAT missile is put in a canister which can be handled as normal ammunition onboard a tank/mortar carrying vehicle. In theory even 105mm artillery guns can be equipped with this as a direct fire solution if needed. Range about 8km.
  • Land vehicles:  The LAHAT missile can be put on a “load” platform with several quadruple launchers (weighting about 75kg per for missiles) Or be put in special launchers which can be fired and reloaded under armour. For example in the excellent Israeli RAM MKiii AT version. Range about 8km.
  • Fixed installation / compound C-RAM system: It creates a defensive shield of about 8km surrounding the compound which can react within seconds after sight of incoming enemy fire.
  • Navy applications: There are several potential navy applications thinkable:
    • Main weapon for patrol boats: with quadruple launchers or other form of launching system fixed to a Remotely Controlled Weapon System (RCWS) armed with a 20 – 40mm medium caliber gun or a small caliber gun 0,50 caliber.
    • Amphibious fire support and littoral warfare: The Current Dutch LCVP’s and LCU’s could take quadruple launchers on deck. But in the future it would also be usefull to use Fast attack craft equipped with 120mm NEMO mortar, so such a vessel can be used in both a indirect and direct fire support function. In the Artillery list more about NEMO. The LAHAT will give a patrol-, amphibious- and littorals force hugh potential and fighting power, which also means security and protection for the soldiers. This also means the high value targets like amphibious ships and frigates can keep out of close range from the shore while giving the landing force a direct reaction capability which also safes on artillery and support weapons/munition onboard the ships.
    • strb2010_20100224_1563248721

      For Amphibious operations and Littoral operations the RNLN / RNLMC team need more and better equiped small vessels like this Alucraft Watercat M18

    • Defensive use: as secondary weapon in the C-RAM and “swarming boats” roles on bigger ships like frigates, replenishment ships and amphibious vessels. This option could even be used on “civil” merchant vessels in the case of anti-piracy or convoy duty.
  • Non Line of Sight (NLOS): this type is somehow able to fill a gap between MLRS and LRGW functions) The Spike NLOS has a range of about 25km, is wire-guided and it is also possible to use for both strike and reconnaissance functions. While flying over / towards a target it films everything on it’s way, so it would be an interesting ISTAR asset. The missile can be re-tasked during flight. This weapon can also be made available in a helicopter version and can be used to equip vessels and small boats.
  • images

 

Artillery: Indirect fire support systems:

  • 60mm Mortar not very much to talk about here. Range about 1km
  • 81mm mortar This should become as it used to be, the indirect fire support weapon for the light infantry only. So the amphibious-, air maneuver- and para commando infantry units as well as some for special forces operations should be integrated in the lowest possible level, the fire support company of the infantry battalions (or groups). Range about 5,6km.
  • 120mm mortar; These towed 120mm mortars could remain (at least in a more modern version) range 8,1km But I would want to make a strong argument to integrate a new system here in the Netherlands inventory.

 

I would ask your special attention for a very versatile system: the 120mm NEMO mortar

Picture 811

The 120mm Patria NEMO mortar.  This system is unique in its capabilities. Of course there are other mortars with a little bit the same capabilities but they are lighter, slower or less capable. Here are some of the features about the turret which is light and compact and easily installable on light, tracked chassis (even like the BVS10 Viking) or wheeled armored vehicles in the 6×6/8×8 class or even boats:

  • A lightweight structure, requiring little space within the platform and, therefore, adjustable for older chassis
  • High rate of fire
  • Rapid response
  • Shoot and scoot
  • Minimal crew (driver + 1 Nemo weapon officer + 2 loaders)
  • Direct fire capability
  • Direct lay capability
  • Suitable for all standard 120 mm smoothbore mortar ammunition
  • Full 360° traverse
  • Joint operations between Patria Nemo and Patria Nemo Navy units
  • A Range of +10km
  • Multiple Round Simultaneous Impact (MRSI, so shoot several rounds, and let them come on the ground at about the same time)
BVS10VikinNemo

the BVS10 amphibious Amored vehicle could be operational in more roles than currently available. There is this 120mm NEMO mortar version for example.

This weapons is really multifunctional and it’s ability to have Direct fire support is especially enhanced because it is also able to fire the LAHAT missile with a range of +8km[i].

 

  • 105mm Howitzer Not in service at the moment, This could be a capable addition for the Dutch land forces. It’s a light system and could be deployed anywhere even under a medium sized helicopter and in an amphibious role. There are interesting systems on the market which give this weapon a range almost equal to heavier 155mm artillery pieces. One of these sytems is the Suith-African Denel Developed Lion.. (attractive name for the Dutch isn’t it😊)
  • 155mm Howitzer: The current heavy (and I mean really heavy) 155mm Pantzer Houwitzer 2000 is a development from the Cold war. The Dutch army has 60 systems in it’s inventory but only uses 18 of them. (plus some for training I believe). But as I said, they are to heavy. To be honest they can only be used in support of the mechanized 43th Brigade with it’s leased tanks and CV9035 Infantry Fighting Vehciles. The other units won’t receive support from this because they will be to heavy for expeditionary warfighting. The only alternative now are the old 120mm towed mortars but these have realy limited range. So best option would be to take a proven 155mm howitzer which is able to support wheeled and light infantry maneuver verywhere. I believe that one of the qualifications should be that it could be flown into theater, that will be able to support amphibious landings.
  • MLRS

 

I think every General, with or without an armchair, could understand and affirm that this situation is untenable. The time to change is NOW! Or as  John Kotter  puts it:

 

[i] https://www.dropbox.com/s/pg7rbqpzxuugv8s/lahat%20%281%29.pdf?dl=0

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LAHAT

 

 

 

 

Part 2: Offensive capabilities: Toothless = useless!

I write a series of three blogs, one about the statistical situational of the personnel of the land forces so Land forces command and the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps. The second blog is an explanation of the Dutch current lack of offensive and eventualy defensive capabilities. Here is part two.

Part 2: Offensive capabilities needed: Toothless = useless!

Besides looking at the “numbers” or to be more specific: “number of soldiers” in fighting and support functions, one other very – not to neglect area – are the weapons and systems they need to fight. We can be short of the capabilities of the Dutch Army and marines to fight (battles not Peace support missions): almost none. And then I’m not talking about the lack of reserve parts, lack of training hours/days and the lack of oil/fuel (and in this case personnel).

The Dutch armed forces lack the capabilities to fight. They can do peace (support) missions, “police” or “training” missions but they can’t do what they are meant for. Especially the Land forces. There is one Brigade which has some form of fighting power, the 43th Brigade with their CV9035 vehicles with 35mm canons. we lease a couple of tanks, and they have support of 120mm (oldies) and 155mm Artillery pieces. On paper… very posh paper (of the Dutch Ministry of Defense) they also have Fennek MRAT, Fennek Mortar and Boxer 8×8 vehicles but all of these aren’t able to fire on the move or only have defensive weapons…. Our Fennek MRAT can only deploy in ambush.. were the soldier have to leave the vehicle to fire his or her missile (1 launcher 2 vehicles with total 10 missiles….) run back to safety… and move on.. This isn’t ofcourse what the army is telling our parliamentarians. (if they even care about it….) If parliamentarians and their political assistants where smart AND interested they would have noticed that while first the Boxer was the only vehicle capable for the MRAT role, but then suddenly the Fennek was capable as well. In between, sort of secretive they changed the specs… and there you have it, the Fennek MRAT was borne. No instead they are only creating lists of “Hoofdwapensystemen” hmmmm.. a Dutch word and I tell you what it means: “Main Armament/Weapon systems”.

Main Armament/Weapon systems Lists

With the word “Armament” or “weapon” you create the illusion that it is about some form of deadly overwhelming and of course hyper modern piece of art… system. (Because that’s also what they claim, for our boys and girls only the best is good enough….. we don’t want to bring them into dangerous situations now do we?)

The use of these words put politicians (and civilians) on the wrong track. They read the number of main armament/weapon systems and think… owh do we have that much? No problem… The parliamentarians do look at the “availability” numbers (which are shockingly low), but there isn’t a list that measures effectiveness and “capabilities”.  So we have to consider that most of these systems on these lists don’t really have offensive capabilities. The tooth has fallen out of the lions mouth.

The Dutch Toothless Lion

What do I mean with: ‘the tooth has fallen out of the mouth of the lion’? (Yes we have an Orange Lion as a mascot😊)? Let’s briefly go down the list:

Capacity / weapon system availability Observations
Tanks (direct firing range 3km Some, only for 43th brigade with some tanks leased from the German Bundeswehr. We sold ours (about 100 directly after modernizing them to the 2A6 standard) for peanuts to Finland.
Close range air defense /(PRTL/Cheetah 35mm) Sold to Jordan (directly after modernizing them to the newest standard) ncluding all 35mm cartridges which where initialy the reason for buying the specifacly adapted CV90 “35” with extra costs.Instead of the standard available 30mm or 40mm as the Sweden have themselves.
Multiple Lounge Rocket System (MLRS) We had some good systems bud sold them because we thought we didn’t need it. These we also sold for peanuts to Finland.
PH2000 155mm Self-propelled Howitzers YES, finally we have a lot of them, 60, of which only 18 in use.. Oh, and they are so heavy they probably can’t support the 11th, 13th Brigades and the RNLMC…They have to do with old 120mm mortars..
Long Range Anti Tank / PRAT (TOW) The Dutch Army doesn’t have these Anti Tank weapons anymore. There currently is no capability of firing on-the-move + firing (and reloading) from under armor! We do have the small Fenneks with Spike missiles (placed on an imperial on the Roof.. for goodness sake☹) but they only have a range of 2,5km. And they go in small numbers. So no, we don’t have any relevant capability anymore.
120mm mortars Low availability, the whole ground forces Army and Marines have to share the same small number of mortars. So limited availability and I have to say, limited range.

These weapons form the backbone of Dutch Artillery while they used to be the heavy weapons of infantry battalions. No smart ammunition. Also no direct fire capability.

81mm mortars Reasonably available within infantry units, no smart ammunition available.
Medium caliber weapons  – only CV9035 There are only 2 battalions equipped with these vehicles. This means that only the 43th Brigade has these offensive capable vehicles. The other “wheeled” Brigade has to do with unarmed  or lightly armed (say 0,50 caliber) machine guns. What about the fighting capability of the Wheeled and Airmobile units?
Small caliber weapons These are normally fitted to a lot of the “Main Armament/Weapon systems” BUT purely in a defensive / supportive role. And this is the main problem for the Dutch land forces.

only one comment for the pictures here… (lose) promisses nothing more…

In my opinion this is a very scary situation. In a realistic and modern combat scenario we… the Dutch… won’t have a chance, without the help of others. It’s not even so we don’t have enough… we don’t have it!

Dutch armed forces need tooth ‘and’ tail

I write a series of three blogs, one about the statistical situational of the personnel of the land forces so Land forces command and the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps. The second blog is an explanation of the Dutch current lack of offensive and eventualy defensive capabilities. In it’s current form it is only able to operate in peace support or police / military training missions and with doing that depending on Airpower and support from other countries. The third piece has some suggestions of what to do to repair these deficiencies and to (re)create teeth…. of the Dutch Lion.

Part 1 Statistics and ratios: tooth-to-tail

A comparison of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps(RNLMC) and the Land Forces Command (CLAS) is in my view appropriate. Since both organizations operate on “land”, and provide most of the fillings / units in the framework of international missions. One other reason I would like to do this is because, how “well meant” the use of military for peace building is, the real purpose of the military is to be a “security” instrument in the hands of the democratic elected government… with my own words added … in the best interest of the people. In short military are there to fight… and win, when the situation and circumstances are unknown. So a military which can only be “employed” under normal or best calculated circumstances, is not able to do the job.

In my opinion there are two important factors for an effective fighting force. I deliberately not talking about others like, training, doctrine, organization command&control, logistics (in the sense of how to organize it). The two factors I want to talk about now is the Tooth to Tail ratio and the offensive capabilities of the Dutch armed forces as it is. In my last blog I already mentioned an overall vision for what is needed for an expeditionary capable force. In this blog I want to focus on the land forces capability especially. There is some overlap.

‘With the word “Armament” or “weapon” you create the illusion that it is about some form of deadly overwhelming and of course hyper modern piece of art… system’.

Tooth to Tail ratio

To calculate the tooth-to-tail ratio I look at some numbers/details of the ministry of Defense below. If we share the other units by the number of personnel assigned to the maneuver units, for the CLAS we see a ratio of 1 to 3.8, and the RNLMC 1: 0.87 or in other words behind each “individual” combat Army/CLAS soldier (tooth) there are 3,8 supporting soldiers (tail). While with the RNLMC the ratio is 0.87 supportive soldier. Of course we have to note here that the RNLMC are supported (on operations) by Army supportive soldiers as well.

 

2013 overview

Maneuver units in 2013 Formation formation% Battalions % of battalions
CLAS 3841    72,6% 7    77,8%
RNLMC 1452    27,4% 2    22,2%
Total 5293 100,0% 9 100,0%

 

I have looked into figures from 2013 and 2014. I didn’t have time to look into newer numbers but we can imagine that it will be significantly harder after the implementation of cuts and the number of soldiers leaving the armed forces.

 

2014 overview

Maneuver units in 2013 Formation formation% Battalions % of battalions
CLAS 3325   69,6% 7    77,8%
RNLMC 1452   30,4% 2    22,2%
Total 4777 100,0% 9 100,0%

 

But if we look at the proportions of the armed forces as a whole … then something is still not right. The CZSK has around 7914 soldiers with about 2,800 Marines. The CLAS has around 18,546 troops … If we want to know the right operational output, we see that only ¼ of the maneuver units among the 21,346 soldiers are belonging to the Tooth of the military. 75% or ¾ of the military operates within the CS, CSS, administration, training and so on. I deliberately not looking into the figures of the civil staff, the MOD and it’s services and the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) and Royal Marechaussee (Military Police force a semi military unit with mostly civil security tasks like protection of the Airports and borders).

Totals Maneuver vs Other

Operational Command Total servicemen % Maneuver % Other %
CLAS 18546   86,88 3841 72,6 14705 92,12
NAVY(RNLMC) 2800 12,12 1452 27,4 1258 7,88
Total 21346 100,0 5293 100,0 15963 100,0
25%   75%

 

But there is more, If we look at the individual components, we see that the CLAS scores lower than 25%, with only 20.71% and 51.86% for the Marines (RNLMC). That makes you wonder doesn’t it? Of course I know the Land forces have a lot more, Staff, Special Forces, CS and CSS units. Beside CLAS has a lot of nonmilitary tasks and is responsible for the (civil) security regions and the National Reserve. But still…..

Totals CLAS vs RNLMC

Operational Command CLAS RNLMC
  Serviceman % Serviceman %
Maneuver 3841 20,71 1452 51,86
Other 14705 79,29 1348 48,14
Total 18546 100,0 2800 100,0

 

Oh yes, the reaction of the military and politicians will be… yeah but look at how other countries do it! Well that’s not going to help us when we need military units with accompanying capabilities.

 

 

Para-Commando Battalion 101th Regiment Stoottroepen Prince Bernard

This blog is a translated and rewritten piece. Because the current situation of the downing of the MH17 flight of Malaysian Airlines and the killing of 193  shows a big weakness of the European Union, and especially the Dutch government, to react.  For days now, almost 298 people lay dead in a very hot place while the Pro-Russian separatists (or do I need to say terrorists?) still refusing to cooperate and even sabotage a good and honest study of the site to explore what happened. These circumstances highlight the necessity to have a (real) quick reaction alert capability for the (Dutch) government. I write this blog with all due respect to the casualties and the families and friends of those who died. But I think it’s necessary to point out that the Dutch government needs a capability like this now and in the future. I also think the current units won’t be able to do this. Not on a short notice and not as an independent nation. We will need US transport, Intel and could maybe deliver some Air-mobile or Marines in support of a US lead operation. In my opinion it could be possible to form and regroup our Light Infantry into a more efficient grouping. We also can buy more air transport capable aircraft and improve European Cooperation for Quick Reaction response units.

Dutch Armed forces need a dedicated paratrooper capability
Of course the activation of such a capability should be done in cooperation and informing Ukrainian and allied nations like US, Germany, Poland (because such a unit should be deployed through their airspaces). Now we see separatists removing bodies and wreckage, we see them looting suitcases and even bodies. We hear of journalists who see it, as eyewitnesses, but the specialists aren’t able to visit the crash site because the separatists won’t allow it. They even took the black boxes away from the crash site now in the hands of one of the separatist groups. The total crash site is useless to ever know what happened really. The reason could be the Russians and separatist want to remove al real proof of what happened. So this is why the Dutch Armed forces need a real fast and quick response unit. The best way is to make it a real paratrooper battalion. I named it the 101th Para commando Battalion.

Belgianparacommandobrigade

The Belgian way
In the first blog I wrote about good examples currently operational. The Dutch can look and learn from the French, British and even Belgian examples. I wrote that currently even the Belgian armed forces have existing capability today because they have both the transport aircraft (C130 Hercules[i]) and the right specialized and highly qualified and experienced units: the former Belgian Para Commando Brigade has been disbanded and was reformed into a Light Brigade. It has one “normal” 12 light infantry battalion (mechanized Piranha IFV equipped) but also two Para trooper trained battalions at its disposal: the 2nd Commando battalion (French speaking)  and the 3th battalion parachutists (Dutch speaking)  and an special paratrooper reconnaissance unit.

764px-Waves_of_paratroops_land_in_Holland 64818ac7f50f8598f484e1a3cf3db1df48h-pour-reprendre-le-controle-de-la-boucle-du-niger-3 1c55b96bc98ca77bd9dd906c55a4730248h-pour-reprendre-le-controle-de-la-boucle-du-niger-2

Mali is a good example of such an operation with quick deployment over relatively great distances. If there need to be a quick response the paratrooper unit is the only one  really suited for the job. A paratrooper unit is especially well suited and equipped for operations like:

  • Conducting evacuation operations of European nationals (NEO non-combatant evacuation operation)
  • Securing high value area/site for political / national reasons
  • Provide support to the Special Forces (KCT
  • Provide support to other maneuver units of the land component
  • Defend the national territory (strategic reserve> anywhere very quickly deployable)
  • Fight terrorism
  • Participate in operations of the reactionforces of the European Union (EU Battle Group)
  • Provide troops for the NATO Response Force (NRF: NATO Response Force)
  • Participate in peacekeeping operations

oh0pat

 

Securing high value sites over long distance
An operation like I suggest in Eastern Ukraine is something in between a evacuation operation from a foreign country and a support mission of Special Operation forces. Because we can predict the reaction of the Ukrainian government, and somehow the Russian government.. they won’t fight the Dutch soldiers, but what will the un (badly) controlled militia groups of the separatists do? Will they give in their arms, or leave the place peacefully?

786px-Black_Sea_map

What the Dutch Government now shows is total passive behaviour, yes we can call on President Putin to support a quick solution,. We can be need and friendly but we now show to the world the Dutch government will not (and cannot) protect its citizens and do a lot more than seeking support for a solution. Instead of taking the initiative in our own hands.

Why we need paratroopers
If we look at the potential tasks and uses of  why the Dutch Armed forces should need a paratrooper unit I referred to the French initial operations in Mali. I ended with a list of possible tasks for the 101th Para-Commando Battalion. Having a paratrooper option within the toolbox gives a government a possibility to act:

  • with great persistence,
  • show of force,
  • speed,
  • at low cost,

Without:

  • large logistical footprints,
  • Host Nation Support.

This will also give the Dutch people a feeling of safety. Knowing that you will be repatriated as soon as possible by trusted and capable forces. And I expect this to be more necessary in future. Because the number of conflicts will grow. Also within the Mediterranean area.

Current situation 
Currently the Dutch Armed forces have certain paratrooper capable units. But hey are fragmentally present within different components. Special Forces from both Navy and Army use this capacity. Also included are some of the Airmobile and Marine Battalions. On average one company within each battalion is paratrooper trained. The big problem here, in my opinion, is that this capability is neglected. It is something they do once in a while besides their normal way of operation. They aren’t specialized paratroopers. Dutchforce21 wants to change this with a new concept of more specialized light infantry units. In fact, the units are less complex and more specialized with two specializations either primary Amphibious or airmobile (helicopter). Within the new concept of organization there will be a small unit within the other Light infantry battalions that will stay paratrooper deployable: the scout platoon will be serving the operational deployment of the manoeuvre units.

  • 2x Marines Battalion: Priority> Amphibious + Cross Training airmobile / helicopter operations (secondary role)
  • 2x Marines Battalion: Priority> Airmobile + Cross Training amphibious operations (secondary role)

The 5th battalion in the current organization an airmobile battalion is to be transformed into a fully Para-Commando Battalion The reorganized battalion carries the  name: Para-Commando Battalion 101th Regiment Stoottroepen[ii] Prince Bernard.

Vignet-Kr-Embl

  • Cooperation with Belgian paratroopers Light brigade
  • Fulfilling the most appropriate role for Rapid Reaction Elements that can be deployed at very short notice;
  • Centralization of paratroopers capacity of the light infantry. The current organization where both Marines and Air Mobile airdrop operations “there” to do will be redirected towards a specialization for the Para commando battalion. (With the other battalions remains only Para capacity exist for the reconnaissance platoons.
  • Specialization in the area of ​​evacuation operations. This unit provides the ability to act over long distances. With great speed (Think of Mali, evacuate nationals from crisis etc
  • Training can be accommodated by the Belgian specialists or other European partners, we don’t need to build a totally new educational organization for it.
  • Possible to form an European system of cooperation to share responsibility to keep the Rapid Reaction role (on short notice) together. I mean, with such a system we can share responsibility for NEO operations of European nationals. For example Each country can take a “watch” for a certain period of time (let’s say a month). This means that this country will need to intervene if necessary, besides the first watch, another country could have some reserve units available. Countries can also share the transport aircraft fleets like they already do within the European Air Transport Command based in Eindhoven.

DutchForce21 has a modular approach in mind also for organizing and equipping military units. The Rapid Reaction Element and the Rapid Reaction Battlegroup form the baseline within the concept to base the number of units which the Dutch Government should have available within the active unit generation system, remember behind every deployable ready unit there will be units with different status[iii].The armed forces should at least have the capacity to offer the following basic elements:

Rapid Reaction Element
1x Rapid Reaction Element available within 48 hours (This is a unit of a company+ size or a equivalent supplemented with relevant subunits. Transported by air or naval vessel.

  • Whether a company of the Para commando battalion (4 companies total available)
  • Whether a company of the designated Marine / Airmobile Light Infantry Battalion (total of 16 companies available
  • Whether a company of a Mechanized Infantry Battalion designated (a total of 16 companies of available.
  • A combination of the above units according to operational necessity, availability.

Rapid Reaction Battlegroup
Such a Battlegroup must be available within 5 days. The increased size of such a battlegroup means there will be need of much larger logistical support. DutchForce21 concept will make it possible to operate such a unit independently but also depends on EU/NATO support in certain areas. Like Air transport for example.

  • This is a unit of a full Infantry battalion supplemented with relevant subunits.
  • Built around one of the 9 Maneuver Battalions of the CLAS
  • Transported by Amphibious transports and / or possibly through the air.
  • This unit is headed by a Joint Force Commander and has integrated command and control, land, air and logistical components.

Orbat of the Paracommando battaljon
101st Regiment Stoottroepen (PARA) This pdf is a possible variant of the orbat which I have in mind for the time being under DutchForce21. It is of course possible to simplify this and make it identical to the Belgian Para-Commando’s, for example but in that case we also would need two battalions to meet the four stroke which for me is a basic requirement!

This battaljon will be capable to generate independent performed operations from the platoon level to Company Group or as a full  Battle Group (full battalion).The battalion consists of a total of 771 men divided among:

  • Command, control and ISTAR Company with 187man. This company groups all C3I2, ISTAR, Combat Support in depth;
  • 4x Paratroopers Companies each 105 men divided over a company staff, and 3 Para PL and a CS pl.;
  • Combat Support Services (CSS) Company with 164 men divided over a company staff, Logistics-, Transport-, Repair Services- and a  Medical Platoon etc.

This battalion is intended to be independently operational deployed for at least 15 days. For longer duration additional units must be added.  The support units will be large enough to support the operations of independently deployed paratrooper companies (they are the first choice for the Rapid Reaction Element).

Combat power and capability
This battalion has the following combat power.

  • 16x Sniper rifles (8 in recce PL, rest divided between Para Cie);
  • 2x SR-UAV sections Recce PL
  • 8x 4 × 4 with LSV with (Lahat with 8km)
  • 9x 81mm Mortar with JFC support sections
  • 4x Jumper Missile System range 50km)
  • Combat engineers PL, with engineers, EOD and sappers etc.
  • 24x Spike MR (range 2.5 km) Para Cie / CSPL
  • 24x ABM weapon eg 25of 40mm GL. Para Cie / CSPL
  • 16x 60mm Mortar Para Cie / CSPL
  • 24x JFires / LTDS systems (Rattler)
  • SHORAD system with 3 × 2 SWP. (Stinger / Red Sky combi)
  • 12x Para Platoons = 36 GWGP (gun groups) = 72 sections

There are summarized above, a number of things that are new and have not yet been incorporated within the current organization. Not everything is necessary to deliver operational units, but it would be ideal. I will explain some of the “new” weapons and their capabilities in short:

  • SR-UAV (Short Range UAV that are remote controlled drones, in a lightweight design.
  • LSV with Lahat (Light Strike Vehicle) with Lahat launcher (these are the simple lightweight cell vehicles only fitted with Lahat launcher with four fire-made missiles. Illustrating below the LSV equipped to HAULING. No deployable weapons. Gill / Spike MR Then a RAM MK3 dual quad launchers and a detail shot of a single quad launcher.’s Lancher + 4 Lahat missiles weigh only 75kg.

LAHAt Launcher 2quad LSV_Gill_ArmyRecognition_Netherlands_01

  • Jumper Missile This system is still in the development stage so it will not yet be available. Nor is natural to consider that the functionality can be picked up by other means. However, such a system with range of 50km seems a necessity.
  • Grenade launchers with ABM (Air Burst Munitions) available in 25mm and 40mm. The latter is used in the Netherlands. Known to occur with smart ABM ammunition.
  • J-Fires LTDS (Joint Fires Laser Target Designation Systems ) These systems are now even in extremely lightweight version: handheld.
  • Shorad System To give this unit a lightweight integrated air defense capability has been sought to be as light as possible but sophisticated system. Firing from the shoulder Stingers are of course the most lightweight option, but it is useful if there is a fire control and radar + sensor system can be. linked Such as the RedSkyII IMI .

RedSkyII system with StingerELM-2026B

 

 

[i] The Belgian Air Component operates 11 C130 Hercules aircraft, which will be replaced by 7 A400M military transports from Airbus.

[ii] The Famous Dutch Regiment Stoottroepen is originally formed around the Dutch Second Worldwar Resistance groups.

[iii] Take an example of the US  Army Force Generation system If you need at least one unit ready for deployment, You will also need one or two units training for readiness, one unit will be reset. And one unit will actualy be on deployment. So the basic number will be 4 (Four). This system is applicable on both larger and smaller formations, on Naval ships and fighter aircraft/flights.

101e Paracommandobataljon Regiment Stoottroepen Prins Bernard

Het vorige blog eindigde met een opsomming van mogelijke taken voor het 101e Paracommandobataljon. Zoals uit het voorbeeld van Mali blijkt is de inzet van parachutisten heel erg nuttig bij operaties waarbij snel en op korte termijn resultaten geboekt moeten worden of doelen veiliggesteld:

  • Deelnemen aan vredeshandhavingsoperaties
  • Het nationale grondgebied verdedigen (strategische reserve > overal heel snel inzetbaar)
  • Terrorisme bestrijden
  • Deelnemen aan operaties van de reactiemacht van de Europese Unie (EU Battle Group)
  • Troepen leveren voor de snelle reactiemacht van de NAVO (NRF: NATO Response Force)
  • Evacuatieoperaties uitvoeren van Europese onderdanen (NEO: non-combattant evacuation operation)
  • Steun leveren aan de special forces (KCT
  • Steun leveren aan andere manoeuvre eenheden van de landcomponent

Een nog bredere inzet mogelijk!
Maar het DutchForce21 staat voor een veelzijdige krijgsmacht met een zo breed mogelijke toolbox. Zoals bekend heeft DutchForce21 een maritieme oriëntatie. Het veiligstellen van Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC) en de eerder genoemde Chokepoints zijn een andere belangrijke reden voor het inrichten van een paracommandobataljon.

international-maritime-route

DutchForce21 gaat er namelijk van uit dat de krijgsmacht ingezet moet kunnen worden om belangen van Nederland wereldwijd te behartigen. Een vrije doorvaart van koopvaardijschepen is dan ook van het grootste belang. Crisis en rampen van wat voor soort en omvang dan ook kunnen effect hebben op de toevoer van grondstoffen en brandstoffen. Bij het minste of geringste kunnen toevoer van onderdelen, grondstoffen en brandstoffen naar ons land – en via ons land heel Europa – stoken. En dit betekend een regelrechte maatschappelijke en economische ramp. Daar hoeft helemaal niet zo gek veel voor te gebeuren…

dereu_10

Marineschepen zijn dan het uitgerekende  instrument om scheepvaartroutes te beveiligen. De effectiviteit van schepen kan echter nog groter worden als er mogelijkheden zijn om bijvoorbeeld vanaf steunpunten vanaf het land (bij gebrek aan vliegdekschepen) operaties uit te voeren met maritieme patrouillevliegtuigen en helikopters. Ook de jachtvliegtuigen van het luchtcomponent zijn zoals gezegd operationeel inzetbaar van kleine (minimaal) voorbereide Forward Operating Bases.

In het kort een visuele weergave van hoe dit er uit kan zien:

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De Parachutisten zijn benodigd om een gebied (tijdelijk) in te nemen het te beveiligen in afwachting van de transport, gevechts- en Maritieme Patrouillevliegtuigen. Terug naar de Nederlandse realiteit!

Lees verder

Goed voorbeeld doet goed volgen: Paracommando’s

Als we aan de Belgische strijdkrachten denken dan denken we vrijwel automatisch aan de Belgische Para commando’s.

Belgianparacommandobrigade

Deze roemruchte eenheden zijn in vele operationele missies ingezet en hebben een geduchte reputatie opgebouwd. In Nederland hebben we niet een vergelijkbare capaciteit. Zowel mariniers als luchtmobiele brigade hebben gedeeltelijk parachuteerbare eenheden en mogelijkheden voor vervoer dmv helikopters maar een gespecialiseerde eenheid zoals de Paracommando’s heeft de Nederlandse krijgsmacht niet. Zoals eerder geschreven in de blog over de Landstrijdkrachten Heeft DutchForce21 een paracommando bataljon in de sterkte opgenomen. In dit blog zal ik proberen te verduidelijken waarom ik denk dat dit een goede en nuttige versterking is van de toolbox.

Referentiekader

 On January 28, about two hundred legionnaires of the 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment (2e REP – 2e Régiment étranger de parachutistes) jumped north of Timbuktu, the ancient trading city in Mali and an important point controlled by Islamist insurgents.

64818ac7f50f8598f484e1a3cf3db1df48h-pour-reprendre-le-controle-de-la-boucle-du-niger-31c55b96bc98ca77bd9dd906c55a4730248h-pour-reprendre-le-controle-de-la-boucle-du-niger-2

Franse parachutisten van het Vreemdelingenlegioen sprongen boven Timbuktu om deze historische en belangrijke stad veilig te stellen. Tegelijkertijd zijn andere eenheden op het land ingezet om over land Timbuktu te bereiken en daarmee de verbindingsweg vrij te maken. De Fransen gebruikten voor het transport 2 hercullesen en 3 C-160 Transall toestellen.

Wie denkt dat para operaties dus alleen voorbehouden zijn aan Special Forces (bijv. KCT) of zelfs denkt dat para- operaties volledig achterhaald zijn hebben het compleet mis. Natuurlijk kent de geschiedenis ook para operaties die zijn mislukt iedereen kent vast de Slag om Arnhem. Dit wil niet zeggen dat de inzet en het in stand houden van gespecialiseerd paracommando eenheden een overbodige luxe is. Deze tak van sport zou overigens binnen de EU en NAVO zeer worden gewaardeerd en een belangrijke toevoeging van niche capaciteiten zijn. Diverse Europese landen hebben in hun drang naar bezuinigingen en kosten besparingen ook gesneden in het aantal capabele en beschikbare parachutisten eenheden. De Britten spannen hierin de kroon.

The name says it all: For more than 70 years the soldiers of Britain’s Parachute Regiment have been prepared to risk their all by dropping into the toughest of war zones. But now cost cutting means the Paras will no longer be trained to use their chutes, the Mail on Sunday can reveal.

The regiment, whose most famous sortie during the Second World War was immortalised in the film A Bridge Too Far, has been targeted by Ministry of Defence accountants keen to reduce budgets.

Until now, all recruits joining the 1,500-strong regiment have undergone intensive parachute training, including a requirement to complete eight jumps before being considered ready for battle. Soldiers have had to do at least two refresher jumps each year of their service to ensure that they remain fully trained for drops behind enemy lines.

Parachute_Regiment_cap_badge

Dit is overigens niet de eerste bezuinigingsmaatregel die deze capaciteit treft. Tot 1999 was er nog een Britse 5th Airborne brigade. Een volledig parachuteerbare eenheid (in feite vergelijkbaar met de Belgische Paracommando Brigade of de Franse 11e Brigade Parachutistes. Overigens, ook de Belgische capaciteit is verminderd van 3 volledig parachuteerbare bataljons tot twee.) Op zich is het verminderen van aantallen bataljons – tot een bepaalde ondergrens – niet heel erg. DutchForce21 begrijpt dat een land zuinig met het beschikbare budget om dient te gaan. Het beschikbaar hebben van bijvoorbeeld een 82e en 101e Airborne divisie is alleen maar weggelegd voor de Verenigde Staten.

Ook zullen grootschalige operaties waarbij eenheden groter dan een bataljon, naar verwachting, niet of nauwelijks meer voorkomen. Operaties met eenheden ter grote van een compagnie plus ondersteuning is zoals uit Mali blijkt heel erg goed mogelijk, en heel erg effectief.

764px-Waves_of_paratroops_land_in_Holland (Market Garden / NL)

Voorbeelden van mogelijke inzet
Zoals uit het voorbeeld van Mali blijkt is de inzet van parachutisten heel erg nuttig bij operaties waarbij snel en op korte termijn resultaten geboekt moeten worden of doelen veilig gesteld.

Deelnemen aan:

    • vredeshandhavingsoperaties;
    • Het nationale grondgebied verdedigen (tactische reserve);
    • Terrorisme bestrijden;
    • Deelnemen aan operaties van de reactiemacht van de Europese Unie (EU Battle Group);
    • Troepen leveren voor de snelle reactiemacht van de NAVO (NRF: NATO Response Force);
    • Evacuatieoperaties uitvoeren van Europese onderdanen (NEO: non-combattant evacuation operation);
    • Steun leveren aan de special forces (KCT);
    • Steun leveren aan andere manoeuvre eenheden van de landcomponent.

In het volgende deel zal ik de plannen voor het Nederlandse Paracommandobataljon behandelen.